عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسنده [English]چکیده [English]
This paper intends to study the theoretical principles and methodological issues of the traditional rhetoric in order to uncover the weak and strong points of the rhetorical system in analyzing the literary discourse as regards to its splendor and artistic effect. The first part of the article discusses the principles of rhetoric among which: postulating the two poles, true and figurative, for the world and the language; distinguishing "signifier" from "signified"; searching for definite and ultimate meanings; priority of clarity over ambiguity; narrow imagination as concerned to the sensual perception; ideological basis; neglecting the role of context and adopting an atomistic outlook toward words or sentences; graphocentrism. The second part examines the problematic strategies and tactics used by rhetoricians which, in a general look, seem to confine the area of the activity of rhetoric. These problems are as follows: priority of poetry over other literary forms; ignoring the language change and the aesthetic taste of time; lack of research in literary texts; scholastic character of rhetoric; copying, and avoiding any critique on the ideas of the predecessors. As such the paper concludes that rhetoric, in its traditional form, fails to maintain the ever-changing needs of creative imaginations and motivated talents; therefore there is no other way but to change the traditional methods and ideals, if a practical and efficient rhetoric is expected.